Process for lubricating regenerated cellulose yarns

Abstract

Claims

1. IN A PROCESS FOR THE TREATMENT OF HIGH TENACITY REGENERATED CELLULOSE YARNS TO RENDER THE SAME READILY AMENABLE TO TEXTILE OPERATIONS, THE STEPS WHICH COMPRISES APPLYING THERETO A LUBRICATING AND CONDITIONING COMPOSITION CONTAINING AS THE ESSENTIAL LUBRICATING MATERIAL THEREIN A MIXTURE OF 35 TO 45 PARTS BY WEIGHT OF THE DIETHANOLAMIDE OF LAURIC ACID, 20 TO 25 PARTS BY WEIGHT OF AN ARYL SULFONATE, 20 TO 25 PARTS BY WEIGHT OF 2-ETHYL-1,3-HEXANEDIOL AND UP TO 5 PARTS BY WEIGHT OF 2-ETHYLHEXANOL.
Patented July 20, 1954 PROCESS FORLUBRICATING REGEN- ERATED CELLULOSE YARNS FredFortess, Summit, N. J assignor to Celanese Corporation of America, New York, N. Y., a corporation. of Delawar No Drawing. Application February 18, 1950, Serial No. 145,078 3 Claims. This invention relates. to lubricant and conditioning compositions and relates more particularly to lubricant and conditioning compositions adapted to be employed in connection with the production of high tenacity regenerated cellulose yarns and filaments'comprising stretched and saponified yarns and filaments having a basis of cellulose acetate or other organic acid ester of cellulose. Yarns of high tenacity regenerated cellulose have been obtained by stretching yarns having a basis of cellulose acetate or other organic acid ester of cellulose and then subjecting the stretched yarns to saponification. The stretching is normally effected by exerting a tension on the yarns while they are under the influence of a softening agent such as steam, hot water or a liquid containing an organic solvent or softening agent for the organic acidester of cellulose material. may be stretched 200, 300, 5000: even 1000 to 200{)% of their original length with the denier of the yarns being, of course, correspondingly dethe yarns in package form to saponification, back-winding the saponified, regenerated cellulose yarns on to a suitable yarn support and then twisting and coning' the regenerated cellulose yarn to impart the desired degree of twist to the yarn and to place it in a suitable package form for use in weaving and knitting operations. The processing of cellulose acetate or other organic acid ester of cellulose yarns into high tenacity regenerated cellulose yarns by the method described above requires numerous textile operations such as winding, back-winding and the like. In order to avoid broken filaments and slub formation, theyarnsmust be properly lubricated. In addition,- it has been observed that in order to knit high tenacity-regenerated cellulose yarns satisfactorily, it isessential that they be properly lubricated and conditioned. The highly oriented nature of'the high'tenacity regenerated cellulose yarns obtained as described above makes them relatively'stiff. This stiffness has a markedly adverse'effect, for example, on the bearded needles normally employed in warp knitting operations. The" yarn stiffness causes a rapid fatiguing'of the needl'ebeards and During the stretching operation the yarns the frequent breakage ofv the needles due to the resulting fatigue makes the knitting of said yarns into commercially acceptable fabric substantially impossible due to the fabric defects which result from the. numerous dropped stitches caused by such needle breakage. It is, therefore, an important object of this invention to provide an improved lubricating and conditioning composition for the lubrication and conditioning of high tenacity regenerated cellulose yarns capable of imparting improved flexibility thereto so as to enable said yarns to be knitted into fabrics satisfactorily by knitting operations employing bearded knitting needles. Another object of this invention is the provision of novel lubricating and conditioning compositions which are suitable for application, duringprocessing operations, to yarns having a basis of cellulose acetate or other organic acid ester of cellulose which enable said yarns to be rocessed into high tenacity regenerated cellulose yarns by stretching and saponifying operations in an efiicient and economical manner. Other objects of this invention will appear from the following detailed description. I have now found that the lubrication and conditioning. of high tenacity regenerated ceilulose yarns may be effected satisfactorily. and sufiicient flexibility imparted to said yarns to enable them to be'knitted into commercially acceptable fabrics by Warp knitting operations employing bearded needles if said yarns are lubricated and conditioned with a novel lubricant and conditioning composition including an alkylolamine amide of a long chain fatty acid, sulfonated petroleum, a polyhydroxy long chain aliphatic alcohol and a monohydroxy long chain aliphatic alcohol. Advantageously, the lubricating and conditioningcomposition is emulsified with water and the aqueous emulsion thus formed then applied to the high tenacity regenerated cellulose yarns in such amount that from about 2 to'about'5% by weight of the lubricating and conditioning composition is deposited on the high tenacity regenerated cellulose yarns. Optimum results are obtained when the novel lubricating and conditioning composition of my invention comprises from about 35 to 45 parts by weight of the diethanolamine amide of lauric acid,20 to 25'parts by weight of the sodium or "other salt of an aryl sulfonate, such as an alkyl benzene su1fonate,'alky1 naphthalene sulfcnate or a sulfonated petroleum base containing 11 to 12% combined SOs, 20 to 25 parts'by Weight of 2-ethyl-l,3-hexanediol and 0 to 5 parts byweight of Z-ethyl-hexanol. When the above composition is to be applied in the form of a water in oil emulsion, about 10 to 30 parts by weight of water may be combined with 100 parts by weight of said composition. When a more dilute, i. e. oil in water, emulsion is desired, from about 75 to 900 parts by weight of water may be added to about 50 parts by Weight of said composition and the mixture stirred rapidly to form the desired emulsion. In either range, the resulting emulsions are completely stable. The novel lubricating and conditioning composition of my invention yields particularly advantageous results when applied to those high tenacity regenerated cellulose yarns obtained by stretching and saponifying cellulose acetate or other organic acid ester of cellulose yarns when said high tenacity regenerated cellulose yarns are put up in the form of section beams and are employed in warp knitting operations. In order further to illustrate my invention, but without being limited thereto, the following example is given: 7 Example I A cellulose acetate yarn of 4% denier having 40 filaments is lubricated at the metier with about 3 to 5% by weight of a suitable metier lubricant and the yarn is then passed through a hot water bath where the residual spinning solvent (acetone) is removed. The yarn is softened in the hot water bath and is further softened by exposure to steam under a pressure of 35 to 45 pounds per square inch gauge. In this softened condition, the yarn is given a times stretch, thus reducing it to 48 denier. The major part of the metier lubricant composition is removed in the hot water bath leaving from about 0.1 to 0.2% by weight of residual metier lubricant thereon. The stretched yarn is taken up on perforated steel bobbins and saponified in a saponifying bath comprising a 0.6% by weight aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide containing about 10% by weight of sodium acetate and maintained at about 60 C. The saponified high tenacity regenerated cellulose yarn is then treated with an aqueous emulsion of a lubricating and conditioning agent of the following composition: Parts by weight Diethanolamine amide of lauric acid 45 Sulfonated petroleum base -i 25 Z-ethyl-lB-hexanediol 25 Lethyl-hexanol 5 The above composition comprises the basic lubricant of my invention. The emulsion employed is formed by the addition of 30 parts by weight of water to the above composition. The emulsion is applied to the running yarn in such amount that from 2 to 5% by weight of the lubricant composition remains thereon. The yarn is rendered highly flexible by the application of this lubricating and conditioning composition thereto. The yarn may be readily warp knitted into commercially acceptable fabric Without encountering any appreciable needle breakage. While the novel composition of my invention may be employed in the form of an emulsion for the particular purpose described above, it also provides an excellent base material, by the addition thereto of certain other components, for the preparation of improved lubricant and conditioning compositions suitable for application to high tenacity regenerated cellulose yarns durin conin operations as well as to stretched cellulose acetate or other organic acid ester of cellulose yarns, prior to their saponification whereby they are chemically converted to regenerated cellulose yarns. In order to modify the basic lubricating and conditioning composition of my invention for such other additional uses, certain other components may be formulated therewith to yield the desired modified composition. To form a lubricating composition which is highly desirable both for application to yarns which are subjected to coning operations and for the preparation of high tenacity regenerated cellulose yarns having excellent weaving and knitting characteristics when applied thereto, my basic composition may have added thereto a relatively large proportion of mineral oil, a small proportion of an oxidized vegetable oil, such as oxidized peanut oil, a blending agent such as diamyl phenol and, in some instances, a yarn softener such as an acylated alkyl ester of a long chain fatty acid, as for example, butyl acetyl ricinoleate. This modified composition is preferably employed as such, 1. e. without dilution to an aqueous emulsion form. Ihe basic composition, when thus modified, is most advantage- Ously applied as a coning lubricant to high tenacity regenerated cellulose yarns which are obtained after the stretching and saponification steps have been completed. Stable emulsions of this modified composition may be formed, however. Thus, in forming said modified composition, I combine from 15 to 25 parts by Weight of my basic composition with 10 to 30 parts by weight of mineral oil of a viscosity 40 to 50 seconds Saybolt, at 106 F., 1 to 3 parts by weight of oxidized peanut oil, 1 to 3 parts by weight of diamyl phenol and 1 to 3 parts by weight of butyl acetyl ricinoleate. The particular proportions oi these components which are employed depends largely on what viscosity is desired in the oil. This novel modified composition is illustrated by the following example. Example II A composition suitable for application during coning operations and the like comprises the following: Parts by weight Basic lubricant composition of Example I 18 Mineral oil (40 sec. SUV) l5 Diamyl phenol 1.5 Butyl acetyl ricinoleate 1.5 Oxidized peanut oil l 5 This composition has an SUV (Saybolt Uni versal viscosity) at F. of and is applied directly to the high tenacity regenerated cellulose yarn after stretching and saponification has been effected. Preferably, the composition is applied to the yarn in an amount of from 3 to 5% by weight on the weight of the yarn. The lubricated and conditioned yarn thus obtained is very satisfactorily lubricated and conditioned not only for coning operations but may be readily woven or warp knitted into commercially acceptable fabric with no appreciable needle breakage beyond that normally encountered in the knitting of any yarns. If it is desired to provide a modified lubricant and conditioning composition suitable for application to stretched cellulose acetate or other organic acid ester of cellulose yarns, prior to saponification, the acylated alkyl ester of the long chain fatty acid employed as the softening agent in the composition above is preferably omitted and the composition thus obtained is then applied in emulsion form, the emulsion being formed by the addition of a suitable quantity of water thereto. When modified for emulsion application to cellulose acetate or organic derivative of cellulose yarns, the modified composition preferably comprises from 15 to 25 parts by weight of my basic composition, to 30 parts by weight of mineral oil of 40 to 50 seconds Saybolt viscosity at 100 F., 1 to 3 parts by weight of oxidized peanut oil and 1 to 3 parts by weight of diamyl phenol. A suitable emulsion is formed when 100 parts by Weight of the above composition are emulsified with to 35 parts by weight of water. When the resulting emulsion is applied to the stretched cellulose acetate or other organic acid ester of cellulose yarn so as to deposit thereon from 2 to 5% by weight of the lubricant, and the yarn then taken up on perforated bobbins and saponified excellent results are obtained. This lubricant composition, when applied in the form of an aqueous emulsion, is also valuable for application to the stretched and saponified high tenacity regenerated cellulose yarns in the preparation of said yarns for knitting operations. This additional modification is illustrated by the following example. Escample III A further modified composition is obtained when the following components are mixed together: Parts by weight Basic lubricant composition of Example I 30 Mineral oil (40 sec. SUV) 15 Diamyl phenol 1.5 Oxidized peanut oil 3.0 Water 8.0 This composition forms a water in oil emulsion having an SUV at 100 F. of 130 to 135 and is preferably applied to the yarns in such amount that when the Water evaporates, from 2 to 5% by Weight of the lubricant and conditioning components remain on the yarn. The lubricating and conditioning compositions described above may be applied to stretched yarns or to stretched and saponified yarns or filaments in any convenient manner. Thus, the compositions may be applied by means of wicks, rollers, discs or other suitable furnishing devices and may also be applied by the immersion of the yarns to be treated in a dilute emulsion While in package form. All of my novel compositions are completely emulsifiable with water and may be removed from knitted or Woven fabrics formed from the lubricated and conditioned yarns by washing the fabrics on suitable textile processing apparatus. It is to be understood that the foregoing detailed description is given merely by Way of illustration and that many variations may be made therein without departing from the spirit of my invention. Having described my invention, what I desire to secure by Letters Patent is: 1. In a process for the treatment of high tenacity regenerated cellulose yarns to render the same readily amenable to textile operations, the step which comprises applying thereto a lubricating and conditioning composition containing as the essential lubricating material therein a mixture of 35 to 45 parts by Weight of the diethanolamide of lauric acid, 20 to 25 parts by Weight of an aryl sulfonate, 20 to 25 parts by weight of 2-ethyl-1,3-hexanediol and up to 5 parts by Weight of 2-ethylhexanol. 2. In a process for the treatment of high tenacity regenerated cellulose yarns to render the same readily amenable to textile operations, the step which comprises applying thereto a lubricant and conditioning composition comprising 15 to 25 parts by Weight of a mixture of 35 to 45 parts by Weight of the diethanolamide of lauric acid, 20 to 25 parts by weight of 2-ethyl-1,3-hexanediol, 20 to 25 parts by weight of an aryl sulfonate, and up to 5 parts by weight of 2-ethyl-hexanol, to which has been added 10 to 30 parts by weight of 40 to 50 SUV mineral oil, 1 to 3 parts by Weight of oxidized peanut oil, 1 to 3 parts by Weight of diamyl phenol and 1 to 3 parts by Weight of butyl acetyl ricinoleate. 3. In a process for the treatment of high tenacity regenerated cellulose yarns to render the same readily amenable to textile operations, the step which comprises applying thereto a lubricant and conditioning composition containing as at least a major component therein 15 to 25 parts by Weight of a mixture of 35 to 45 parts by Weight of the diethanolamide of lauric acid, 20 to 25 parts by weight of an aryl sulfonate, 20 to 25 parts by weight of 2-ethyl-1,3-hexanediol and up to 5 parts by weight of 2-ethyl-hexanol having added thereto 10 to 30 parts by Weight of mineral oil, 1 to 3 parts by Weight of oxidized peanut oil, 1 to 3 parts by weight of diamyl phenol and 5 to 10 parts by weight of water. References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 2,067,202 Pool et al. Jan. 12, 1937 2,089,212 Kritchevsky Aug. 10, 1937 2,096,749 Kritchevsky Oct. 26, 1937 2,150,571 Whitehead Mar. 14, 1939 2,385,423 Seymour et a1 Sept. 25, 1945 OTHER REFERENCES Neville et al.: American Dyestuff Reporter, vol. XXII, September 11, 1933, No. 10, pages 541, 542, 543. Ind. and Eng. Chem, vol 31, January 1939, vol. 1, page 69. Rayon Textile Monthly, November 1943, page 68. Synthetic Organic Chemicals, Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp, 1940, page 11. Chemical Abstracts, 1947, vol. 41, col. 6365c.

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Cited By (3)

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    US-2809159-AOctober 08, 1957Dexter Chemical CorpAntistatic and rewetting treatment of textile material
    US-2862833-ADecember 02, 1958Celanese CorpRegenerated cellulose filamentary material
    US-3232268-AFebruary 01, 1966Celanese CorpApparatus for lubricating cigarette-filter-forming filamentary material