S. LIGHTER Filed Dec. 1, 1954 ll K i\ INVEN TOR.
d BY May 29, 1956 METHOD OF MAKING BUILDING INSULATION AND PRODUCT United States Patent METHOD OF MAKING BUILDING INSULATION AND PRODUCT Stephen Lighter, Madison, Wis.
Application December 1, 1954, Serial N 0. 472,369
3 Claims. (Cl. 154-28) The present invention relates in general to improvements in the art of retarding the transmission of heat from one space to another, and relates more specifically to improvements in the construction of insulating material for buildings and to an improved method of producing the same.
The primary object of this invention is to provide simple but effective building insulation and an improved method of manufacturing such material.
It is at present common commercial practice to insulate the outer and inner walls and the ceilings and floors of buildings, either by merely utilizing heat retarding sheets or layers of diverse insulating materials, or by utilizing heat reflecting surfaces associated with flat sheets of wall board or formed directly from metallic sheets and which are exposed to extensive air spaces. While both of these prior methods provide some degree of insulation, they are objectionable both because of the bulk and the difficulty of application of the insulating materials, and because the heat reflective surfaces when exposed to extensive air spaces rapidly deteriorate and become coated with foreign matter such as dirt and oxidation thus making them relatively ineffective as heat wave reflectors. Then too, most of the previous building insulations are not adapted to be installed in the form of self-contained sections applicable as units to standard spaced studs, joists and the like, which can be cut to desired sizes with ordinary carpenter equipment and conveniently attached.
The present invention therefore contemplates the provision of improved insulating material especially applicable to standard building framing or skeleton structures, and which obviates all of the above mentioned objectionable features and difiiculties, and an improved mode of producing such material for commercial use.
An important object of my present invention is to provide more efficient building insulation of a type embodying desirable characteristics of many of the prior insulations, and which can be furnished in self contained unit form ready for convenient installation.
Another important object of the invention is to provide an improved kind of sheet insulation involving heat wave reflecting surfaces cooperating with limited air spaces which are sealed so as to efiectively prevent deterioration of the reflective qualities of the surfaces and resultant loss of efliciency.
A further important object of this invention is to provide an improved variety of building insulating material which is compact but durable in structure, and which may be employed on opposite sides of walls and partitions to produce dual insulating effect Without undesirably increasing the wall or partition thickness.
Still another important object of the present invention is to provide an improved method of expeditiously fabricating insulation embodying all of the foregoing features and advantages, from readily available materials and at moderate cost.
These and other more specific objects and advantages of 2,747,651 Patented May 29, 1956 ice the invention will be apparent from the following detailed description.
A clear conception of the several steps involved in the improved method, and of the construction and functioning of several types of the new insulation, may be had by referring to the drawing accompanying and forming a part of this specification wherein like reference characters designate the same or similar parts in the various views.
Fig. 1 is a fragmentary perspective view of a corner of a unit of the improved building insulation embodying a main sheet of fibrous wall board having reflectively coated local spherical zone concavities sealed by a thin closure sheet, the unit being applied to a building stud and top plate;
Fig. 2 is a slightly enlarged vertical section through an assemblage such as shown in Fig. 1, taken along the line 22, but showing one of the improved insulating units applied to both of the opposite sides of the stud and top plate;
Fig. 3 is a further enlarged fragmentary section through the same type of the improved insulation as shown in Figs. 1 and 2, but showing the adjacent concavities lined with a continuous reflecting coating which also covers the surface of the main sheet between the concavities;
Fig. 4 is a similarly enlarged fragmentary section through a modified type of the improved insulation, having reflective concavities and covering sheets on the'cpposite sides of the main insulating sheet;
Fig. 5 is another similarly enlarged fragmentary section through a further modification of the invention, wherein the main insulation sheet is split medially and has the refiectively coated concavities formed between the two halves of the main sheet; and
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary perspective view of a corner of an insulating unit similar to that of Fig. 1, but having the main sheet provided with elliptical local concavities.
While only a few of the possible modifications embodying the present improved building insulation have been shown and described herein, it is not my intention to unnecessarily restrict the invention by virtue of such limited embodiment; and it is also contemplated that specific descriptive terms employed herein be given the broadest possible interpretation consistent with the actual disclosures.
In accordance with the present improved method, a sheet of relatively heavy building material such as wall board formed of fibre and having some heat insulating characteristics, is first provided on one or both sides with a plurality of relatively small local pockets or concavities, the concave surfaces of the concavities are then provided with heat reflecting surfaces, and the concavities are finally sealed to produce an unobstructed but hermetically enclosed air space adjoining each of the heat reflected surfaces.
Referring to the drawing, and especially Figs. 1 and 2, each of the improved insulation units disclosed therein, comprises a main relatively heavy sheet 8 of fibrous or other material having heat insulating characteristics and being provided with relatively small circular and approximately spherical local concavities 9 throughout substantially its entire area; a coating 10 of heat reflective substance such as zinc or copper oxide or aluminum ap lied to the curved surface of each concavity 9 and having a bright surface exposed to the concavity interior; and a relatively thin sheet -11 of fibre board or other rather durable material secured to the main sheet 8 by gluing or otherwise to hermetically seal all of the concavities 9.
The sheets 8, 11 of this unit are preferably of such size that the unit may be economically attached as by nailing without waste, to studs 12 and floor plates or top plates 13 spaced standard distances apart; and the coatings may either be sprayed or applied adhesively in the form of thin layers of sheeting to the curved surfaces of the concavities 9. These insulation units may be thus attached either to the inner sides of the structural stud and plate elements or to both the inside and outside, and when applied to the outer sides of the studs 12 siding 14 may be applied directly to the closure sheets 11 of the outer units, as depicted in Fig. 2.
The improved insulation units may also be constructed as illustrated in Figs. 3, 4 and 5, but of substantially the same overall size as in the embodiment of Figs. 1 and 2. In Fig. 3, the flat surfaces of the main sheet 8 as well as the concavities 9 are covered with the reflection coating or layer 10' which may be sprayed on or applied as a continuous thin layer or film. This coating should, however, also be provided with a bright heat ray reflecting surface exposed outwardly away from the main supporting sheet 9, and the thinner outer sheet 11 should also be permanently attached to the thick insulation sheet 8 so as to hermetically seal the concavities 9.
In the embodiment of Fig. 4, both of the opposite sides of the main insulation sheet 8, are provided with local spherical zone concavities 9 throughout substantially the entire sheet area, and each of which is coated or covered with a layer 10 of heat reflective substance having a bright outer surface. The concavities 9 on the opposite sides of the main sheet 8' of this modification are preferably staggered as shown in order to provide greatest strength, and the covering sheets '11 which span the concavities 9 besides hermetically sealing the latter, also stiffen and reinforce the sheet'S.
As shown in Fig. 5, the thin outer sheets 11 may be dispensed with by splitting the main sheet 8 approximately in half or by providing two thinner main sheets, and by forming staggered concavities 9 in the two halves. Each of the spherical zone concavities of this modification should also be coated or lined with films 10 of heat reflective material having bright surfaces exposed to the concavities, and the two halves of the insulation sheet 8" should be adhesively or otherwise united so as to hermetically seal all of the concavities 9.
While the concavities 9 are preferably formed of substantially spherical or parabolic shape having circular bounding edges, they may also be formed elliptical as in Fig. 6 or of any other configuration. The concavities 9' of Fig. 6 should also be surfaced or lined with bright reflective surfaces, and may be applied to insulation units such as shown in Figs. 3, 4 and 5. It is important however, that the concavities 9, 9' in each case be of relatively small formation and disposed locally throughout substantially the entire areas of the main sheets 8, 8', 8", and these concavities may be pressed or otherwise formed in the relatively soft main insulation sheets and should preferably be enclosed by harder and more durable closure sheets 11.
When the improved insulating units have been properly constructed as herein described, they may be applied either to one or both sides of a partition, wall, ceiling or floor and will function substantially as follows. Whether applied to the interior of a room or space which is to be insulated, or to the exterior of a confining wall for such space, the main fibrous sheet 8, 8', 8 will in each case retard the passage of heat therethrough to some extent, and this retardation will in all cases be materially augmented by the bright heat ray reflecting surfaces of the coatings or film 10, 10 which will reflect heat r-ays projected thereagainst into the adjoining sealed concavities 9, 9' and prevent such rays from entering the main sheets 8, 8, 8".
The improved units may be utilized in place of lathing for the attachment of plaster or for direct decoration by painting or papering when applied internally of the insulated space, or they may be used as siding for the direct application of siding 14 or other concealment when applied to building exteriors as in Fig 2. This fact makes it 4 possible to produce a relatively thin but well insulated wall, and by providing assemblages such as shown in Figs. 4 and 5 each unit will reflect heat rays tending to pass therethrough in opposite directions. The invention therefore provides building insulation which combines reflective insulation with solid sheets having inherent insulating characteristics, and the units which embody these composite featuers may be readily handled as such and conveniently cut to any desired size with each severed sec tion retaining all of the advantages of the entire unit.
From the foregoing detailed description it should be apparent that the present invention in fact provides a simple but highly effective building insulation which embodies an improved method of enhancing the insulating qualities of fibrous wall board or other sheet insulation without adding thickness to the walls to which the insulation is applied, and in which the air spaces adjoining the heat ray reflecting surfaces are of insuflicient size and are hermetically sealed so as to prevent oxidation of these surfaces. This hermetic sealing also avoids accumulation of dust and soot on the bright heat ray reflecting surfaces so that these surfaces will not deteriorate and remain most effective forever, and the thin covering sheets 11 may be formed of any relatively strong 'and stiff sheet material not necessarily possessing heat insulating characteristics but capable of reinforcing the main sheets 8, 8'.
The concavities 9, 9' may be of substantially spherical zones, parabolic, elliptical, or of any other formation capable of providing a relatively small confined air space and of reflecting heat rays outwardly thereof, and the linings or protective coatings may be either sprayed, painted, or applied as thin films or sheets of materials such as zinc or copper oxide or aluminum adapted to present bright reflective surfaces. In actual practice it is preferable to utilize fibre insulation board of approximately three quarter inch thickness for the main sheets and to provide concavities of approximately one inch diameter and one quarter inch in depth, and units constructed in this manner have proven highly satisfactory and advantageous over other more complex types of building insulation. The improved units can also be produced at relatively low cost for diverse insulation purposes, either to prevent excessive heating of confined spaces from the outside, or to prevent undesirable escape of heat from within.
It should be understood that it is not desired to limit this invention to the exact steps of the method or to the precise construction of the building insulation, herein specifically described and shown, for various modifications within the scope of the appended claims may occur to persons skilled in the art.
I claim: 7
1. The method of retarding the passage of heat through a relatively thick sheet of fibrous building material, which comprises, forming local substantially spherical zone concavities throughout the major area of at least one side of the sheet, coating the entire concave face of each concavity with a continuous layer of metal having a bright heat ray reflecting surface exposed to the concavity interior, and hermetically sealing all of the concavities with a relatively thin and impervious sheet of material adhesively secured to the thick fibrous sheet.
2. A building insulation unit comprising, a relatively thick sheet of insulation having a plurality of local concavities throughout a major portion of aside thereof each bounded by an approximately spherical zone surface, a continuous coating of metal completely covering each zone surface and each being provided with a bright heat reflecting face exposed to the adjacent concavity interior, and another sheet of relatively impervious material permanently secured to said insulation sheet to hermetically seal all of said concavities.
3. A building insulation unit comprising, a relatively thick sheet of insulation having a plurality of local spherical zone concavities throughout the major portion of both of its opposite sides, each of said concavities being completely covered by a continuous layer of metal having a bright heat reflecting approximately spherical zone surface facing the adjacent concavity interior, and an auxilliary sheet of relatively impervious material permanently secured to each side of said main sheet and hermetically sealing the adjacent concavities.
UNITED STATES PATENTS References Cited in the file of this patent Weiss July 10, 1923 Hochstetter Nov. 2, 1937 Slisz et a1 Sept. 19, 1939 Del Mar et a1 Aug. 26, 1952 Rand Mar. 10, 1953