Aug. 5, 1958 K. u. SCHUSTER 2,845,955
REED FOR LOOMS AND WEAVING METAL GAUZE BY MEANS OF SHUTTLES Filed Sept. 10, 1956 y 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 1958 K. u. scH TER 2,845,955
REED FOR LOOMS AND m; we METAL GAUZE I Y MEA LES B NS 0F SHUTT Filed Sept. 10, 1956 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 A 1958 K u. SCHUSTER 2,845,955
REED FOR LOOiVlS AND WEAVING METAL GAUZE BY MEANS OF SHUTTLES Filed Sept. 10, 1956 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 Fig.9
Aug. 5, 1958 K. u. SCHUSTER 2,845,955
' REED FOR LOOMS AND WEAVING METAL GAUZE BY MEANS OF SHUTTLES Filed Sept. 10, 1956 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Fatented Aug. 5, 1958 REED FOR LOOMS FOR WEAVING METAL GAUZE BY MEANS F SHUTTLES Karl Ulrich Schuster, Giengen, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany The present invention relates to improvements in looms for- Weaving fine wire gauze or screens such as used, for example, as metal cloths and metal sieves for the manufacture of paper. More particularly, the invention relates to new and valuable improvementsin the reed for such looms.
It is especially desirable in the manufacture of paper that the peaks of the bulges of the crimped weft wires of the cloth or sieve supporting the pulp lie as accurately as possible within the same plane as the peaks of the crimped warp wires so that the outer supporting surface of the cloth or screen will be as smooth and level as possible. It has for this purpose already been proposed that the weft wires to be used in the gauze or fabric might either be made thinner or of a thicker but hollow cross section. However, the desired result could even then never be. adequately attained for the reason that the web on which the weft wire was beaten was free and unsupported during the beating operation. In order to place the weft wires in a common plane during the weaving operation, it is always necessary to beat them so as to lie above each other, that is, the beater frames of the loom must be adjustedso that the warp Wires at the lower side of the warp shed will be more highly tensioned than the warp wires at the upper side of the war-p shed. Thus, the weaving operation is as follows:
When the weft Wire is beaten into the web, that part of the warp wires lying on top will yield in the warp shed so that the part of the warp Wires lying at the bottom in the warp shed will be more highly tensioned. This results in avery acute bend or crimping of the upper warp wires which is again partially bent back after the following reversal of the warp shed and the subsequent beat of the next weft wire. Such unbending results in a larger bulge of the warp wires than required by the weft wire andin loosening of the latter. However, since the beating surface of the reeds as were known prior to this invention was disposed at the outer edge of the reed or the dents thereof, it was impossible to attain a crimping of both weft and warp wires which was perfectly uniform in both types of wire.
Although in looms designed for weaving coarse-meshed fabrics of strong wire it is already known to provide reeds, the individual dents of which are each provided with a rectangular transverse weft wire receiving notch which together form a continuous slot extending through the reed, and into which the weft wire is inserted from one side, and from which it emerges after being beaten between the warp wires, the width and depth of such slot always has to be equal or only slightly larger than the diameter of one weft wire so as properly to guide the same after being inserted. Consequently, in the beating operation, the weft wire remains straight and the warp wires bend around the weft wire when the warp shed is reversed. This is true particularly if wire gauze with a wire strength of a diameter as little as 0.2 to 0.3 mm. were to be made on such looms and with such reeds. A
uniform weave of both warp and weft wires of such small thickness would then be impossible'due to the fact that the weft wires would be too thin. and pliable in order to be inserted without shuttles.
It is an object of the present invention to provide a reed for producing thin wire gauze or fabric, particularly for metal cloths or metal screen for manufacturing paper, in which the warp and weft wires are equally crimped so that the outer surfaces of the gauze will be 'as even and smooth as possible and wherein such gauze is resiliently pliable due to the fact that the warp wires extending in the direction of movement of the sieve or cloth lie considerably flatter within the gauze than they would be lying if the warp and weft wires were crimped unequally. Another important advantage resulting from such uniformity of the gauze is the fact that the wear upon that side of such cloth or screen which in movement will be exposed to pressure and friction will be uniformly distributed over the entire surface thereof so that the useful life of the cloth or sieve will thus be considerably increased.
An essential feature of the present invention consists in providing a reed, the dents of which are each provided with a transverse notch which together form a groove which extends throughout the entire width of the reed but itself has a width corresponding. to at least the combined diameters of one weft and one warp wire, and a depth at least equal to the space taken up by one warp wire and two weft wires. Thus, while the dents of the reed are beating, the edges of the notches thereof extending in front of their heating surface and in the weaving direction will project over the edge of the Weave and support the same at such edge so that the weft and warp wires will be crimped uniformly, resulting in a uniform weave of 'both types of wires and thus in smooth and even outer surfaces of the gauze or fabric.
According to the invention, the notches in the reed are preferably limited at one side by a continuous gib or bar and at the other side by the edges of the dents. Such gib may consist of a finely ground steel bar which may be mounted either above or below the warp wires, depending upon the direction in which these wires run into the reed. It may also be of various cross sectional shapes, and preferably of a round cross section, although a rectangular or semicircular cross section may also be used.
The width of the notch in each dent is dependent upon the type and quality, as well as the diameter of the wire to be woven. In some particular cases it may be desirable to make the width of the notch slightly larger or smaller than the combined diameters of one warp and weft wire. In the latter case, the outer surfaces or the peak of the crimping of the wires will then be slightly flattened.
The invention further provides for extending the edges or surfaces defining the notch so as to be slightly inclined toward each other, widening from the longitudinal center toward the outside. Also, the outer edge of a gib of rectangular cross section and that of the dents are preferably beveled or rounded off at the open end of the notch.
Furthermore, the corner formed at the apex of the beat surface and the edge of the notch in the dents is preferably beveled or rounded so that during the beat ing the weft wire will be pressed against the warp wires slightly further than necessary for obtaining the final crimping.
Especially advantageous results will also be attained if, according to another embodimnet' of the invention, the notch is shaped in the direction toward its open side, that is, in the weaving direction, so that the beating edge of the dents forms an open angle to the horizontal edge of the notch which is in any case less than but deviates considerably from a horizontal plane. The particular degree of the angle of such beating edge and whether it should be made slightly larger or smaller depends upon the type and thickness of the wire used in weaving.
The inclined position of the beating edge of the dents of the reed results in the advantage that both the weft wire and the warp wires will be crimped very uniformly so that the outer surfaces or peaks of all crimped wires at both sides of the gauze will lie within the same planes. Also, a wire gauze or fabric thus produced has been found to be very elastic in the direction vertically to its outer surfaces and to have a very high transverse rigidity which will prevent any twisting thereof in the longitudinal direction. Furthermore, the finished gauze or fabric will be much thinner than previously possible even if the wire used would have the same thickness as previously.
The notch in the dents of the reed may be provided either near the upper or lower connecting member depending upon whether the loom operates with an upper or lower beat. In the case of a lower beat, the inven tion may further reside in the provision of a continuous longitudinal gib or bar for forming the horizontal edge of the notch in each dent. This has the advantage that both the warp and weft Wires will be supported by the horizontal edge of the notch in each dent. However, such a continuous gib does not necessarily have to extend fullyyinto the angle at the base of the notch.
These and further objects, features, and advantages of the present invention will now be described in detail with reference to the accompanying diagrammatical drawings, in which- Fig. 1 shows a highly enlarged front view of a reed according to the invention,
Fig. 2 shows a cross section taken along line 11-11 of Fig. l, but on a still more highly enlarged scale;
Fig. 3 shows a cross section taken along line IIIIII of Fig. 2;
Figs. 4 to 6 show cross-sectional views similar to that shown in Fig. 2 but of several modifications of the invention;
Fig. 7 shows a highly enlarged front view of another modification of the reed according to the invention;
Fig. 8 shows a cross section taken along line VIIIVIII of Fig. 7;
Fig. 9 shows a cross section taken along line IXIX of Fig. 8;
Fig. 10 shows a cross section taken along line XX of Fig. 11; while Fig. 11 shows across section taken along line XIXI of Fig. 10.
Referring to the drawings, the reed according to the invention consists in the usual manner of dents 1 which are disposed in a spaced relation to each other so that intermediate gaps 2 are formed through which the warp wires 3a and 3b are drawn. Dents 1 are disposed between connecting bars 20 and are each provided with a recess so that the beat or contact surface 4 of each dent is offset to and in the rear of the front edge thereof. In the embodiment of the invention as shown in Figs. 1 to 6 dents 1 are provided with a recess in which a steel bar or gib 6 is mounted so as to extend transverse to the dents and thus forming a notch or groove, the width of which is equal to or slightly larger or smaller than the combined diameters of one warp wire 3a or 3b and one weft wire 9 as shown, for example, in Figs. 2 and 5, respectively. The depth of the slot substantially corresponds to the width of two adjoining meshes. The opposite surfaces 7 and 8 of dents 1 and gib 6 are substantially parallel, as shown in Figs. 2 and 5, or, as shown in Fig. 4, slightly diverging toward the open side of the notch, and preferably terminate in beveled or rounded outer edges and 11.
When saying that the width of the notches in the dents of the reed may be slightly larger or smaller than the combined diameter of one warp and weft wire, I mean to say that such width only deviates by a small fraction from such diameter. Thus, for example, if the warp wires have a diameter of approximately 0.2 to 0.4 mm. and the weft wires are slightly, for example, 0.02 mm., thicker than the warp wires, the width of the notch may be a few hundredths of a millimeter greater or smaller than the combined diameters of the warp and weft Wires. When using such slightly smaller width, a result will occur as illustrated in Figs. 2 and 3, namely, that the outer surface or peak of the crimping of the weft wires 9 will be slightly compressed by the edges of the horizontal surfaces 7 of the dents.
While in the embodiments of the invention as shown in Figs. 2, 4, and 5, the steel gib 6 is of rectangular or substantially rectangular shape, the gib shown in Fig. 6 is of a round cross section and the vertical plane of the beat surface 4 of the reed is spaced from the central vertical plane of the round gib 6, a distance equal to one-half of the diameter of a weft wire.
The uniform crimping 12 of weft wires 9 is obtained during the weaving operation by the fact that the weft wire in being beaten in is squeezed by the warp wires in a manner similarly as between the tongs of a pair of shears. Such crimping occurs because the upper side of the warp wires 3a abuts against and is supported by the steel gib 6 and the previously beaten weft wire 9!], while their lower side is supported by the edges 7 of dents 1. .As previously stated, the width of the notch between the edges 7 of dents 1 and surface 8 of gib 6 is of a size so as to be filled out at least substantially by the superimposed warp and weft wires. Depending upon the setting of the warp sheds relative to the weaving plane and as shown in Fig. 4, the notch may be wider at the point of entry of the wire fabric than at the beating edge 4. The beveled edges 10 and 11 of gib 6' and dents 1 permit an easy insertion of the wire fabric into the notch. In the finished product, the peaks 12 and 13 of the crimping of the weft wires 9 and the warp wire 3a and 3b, respectively, all lie within the same plane and the crimping of the weft wires is fully or at least substantially identical with that of the warp wires.
The corner formed at the apex of the beating edge 4 and the edge 7 of dents 1 is preferably beveled or rounded at 14 so that the weft wire 9a when beaten will be slightly pressed against the superimposed warp wires 3a.
In the embodiment of the invention as shown in Figs. 7 to 11, one edge 7 of the notch lies horizontal, that is, in the weaving direction, while the other edge 4 serving as the beating edge for engaging the weft wire 9 extends at a slightly greater tension than the upper Warp wires 3a..
Edge 4 of dents 1 then passes to the position indicated in Figs. 8 and 10 in dot-and-dash lines.
Weft wire 9 then lies above the horizontal edge 7 of the notch and approximately within the central plane of the fabric and it will also remain in such position when after the reversal of the warp shed the reed rocks back and when warp wires 3a assume the position of warp wires 3b or vice versa. Thus, one weft wire is not fully brought into the plane of the fabric until the next following weft wire is beaten in, and it will then rest upon the horizontal edges 7 of the notch in dents 1. Thus, while the weft wire is being beaten in, the inclined position of beating edge 4 balances the stronger tension of the lower warp wires 3b relative to the upper warp Wires 3a. The warp wires will therefore be fully and uniformly crimped, while the weft wire will be equally crimped due to the fact that the previous weft wire 9 is supported by the horizontal edge 7 of the notch in dents 1 and cannot yield downwardly, as shown particularly in Fig. 9.
The embodiment of the invention as shown in Figs. and 11 differs from that shown in Figs. 8 and 9 merely insofar as the reed is provided with a continuous longitudinal gib which forms at least the outer portion of the notch in the dents, that is of the lower horizontal edge 7 thereof, thus serving as a means for supporting both the weft and warp wires 3a, 3b, and 9, respectively.
Although in the above description, edge 7 of the notch in dents 1 has been described as being horizontal, it is not absolutely necessary that it extends at a right angle to the outer edge of the dents, and such angle may deviate slightly from a right angle.
Even though my invention has been illustrated and described with reference to preferred embodiments thereof, I wish to have it understood that the invention is in no way limited to the details of such embodiments, but is capable of numerous modifications within the scope of the appended claims.
Having thus fully disclosed my invention, what I claim is:
1. A reed for shuttle-operated looms for weaving metal gauze or fabric comprising a plurality of dents, each having a transverse notch therein, said notches together forming a groove extending through the entire reed and transverse to the weaving direction, the inner end of each of said notches serving as a beating edge, the depth of said notch being substantially equal at least to the combined diameters of two weft wires and one Warp wire of said fabric, one of the edges defining said notch in each of said dents being substantially horizontal and extending in the weaving direction when said dent is in the beating position and forming a contact surface for said fabric.
2. A reed for shuttle-operated looms for weaving metal gauze or fabric comprising a plurality of dents, each having a transverse notch therein, said notches together forming a groove extending through the entire reed and transverse to the weaving direction, the inner end of each of said notches serving as a beating edge, the width of said notch being substantially equal to the combined diameters of one warp and one weft wire of the fabric to be woven, the depth of said notch being substantially equal at least to the combined diameters of two weft wires and one warp wire of said fabric, one of the edges defining said said notch in each of said dents is slightly larger than the combined diameters of one weft and one warp wire of the fabric to be woven.
5. A reed as defined in claim 1, wherein the width of said notch in each of said dents is slightly smaller than the combined diameters of one Weft and one Warp wire of the fabric to be woven.
6. A reed as defined in claim 1, wherein the surfaces defining said notch in each of said dents diverge relative to each other toward the open end of said notch.
7. A reed as defined in claim 1, further comprising a gib member of substantially rectangular cross section extending continuously through said reed and forming one side of said notch in each of said dents, the other side of said notch being formed by an edge of said dent, itself, each of said dents being beveled at the outer end of said notch.
8. A reed as defined in claim 1, wherein the point of intersection of said beating edge and the longitudinal edge of each of said dents defining said notch is beveled.
9. A reed as defined in claim 1, further comprising a gib member of substantially circular cross section extending continuously through said reed and forming one side of said notch in each of said dents, the other side of said notch being formed by an edge of said dent itself.
10. A reed as defined in claim 9, wherein a vertical plane passing through said heating edge of each of said dents is spaced from a vertical plane passing through the center of said gib member by a distance equal to substantially one-halfof the diameter of one weft wire of the fabric to be woven.
11. A reed as defined in claim 1, wherein said heating edge of each of said dents extends at an oblique angle to the weaving direction and forms an angle of less than 90 with the horizontal edge of said dent defining said notch.
12. A reed as defined in claim 1 wherein said beating edge of each of said dents extends at an oblique angle to the weaving direction and forms an angle of substantially with the horizontal edge of said dent defining said notch.
13. A reed as defined in claim 1 and having a lower beating action, wherein said heating edge of said dents extends at an oblique angle to the weaving direction and forms an angle of less than with the horizontal edge of said dent defining said notch, said horizontal edge being formed by a gib member extending continuously through said reed.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 955,211 Salisbury Apr. 19, 1910 1,970,443 Cooper et al. Aug. 14, 1934 2,145,681 Berger Jan. 31, 1939 2,480,395 Clark Aug. 30, 1949 FOREIGN PATENTS 684,268 France June 24, 1930